gives the specified property for a subatomic particle or family of particles with the specified name.


gives the specified property for a version of the particle with charge q.


  • Typical forms of names for long-lived particles include "Electron", "Photon", "MuonNeutrino", "ElectronNeutrinoBar", "PiZero", and "OmegaMinus".
  • Generic names such as "PiMeson" can be used to refer to charge multiplets. "PiMinus" is equivalent to {"PiMeson",-1}.
  • Excited-state hadrons are referred to by names such as "K1Meson1400".
  • Quarks are referred to as "UpQuark", "StrangeQuark", "BottomQuark", etc. Gauge bosons are "Gluon", "WBoson", "ZBoson", etc.
  • Distinct antiparticles are referred to by names that end in Bar, such as "KZeroBar".
  • ParticleData[] and ParticleData[All] give a list of all known particles in order of increasing mass.
  • Basic properties include:
  • "Charge"charge
    "HalfLife"halflife in seconds
    "Lifetime"lifetime in seconds
    "Mass"mass in MeV/c^2
    "QuarkContent"list of constituent quarks
    "Symbol"standard particle symbol
    "Width"decay width in MeV
  • Quantum numbers include:
  • "BaryonNumber"baryon number
    "Bottomness"bottom number (b quark content)
    "Charm"charm (c quark content)
    "CParity"charge conjugation parity
    "GParity"isospin parity
    "IsospinProjection"isospin projection
    "LeptonNumber"lepton number
    "Parity"spin parity
    "Spin"spin angular momentum
    "Topness"top number (t quark content)
  • Properties for long-lived particles include:
  • "GFactor"g factor
    "MeanSquareChargeRadius"mean square charge radius in fm^2
  • Related particle properties include:
  • "Antiparticle"antiparticle of the given particle
    "ChargeStates"list of charges of particles in the same isospin multiplet
    "Excitations"particles with the same internal quantum numbers
    "IsospinMultiplet"list of particles in the same isospin multiplet
  • Decay-related properties include:
  • "DecayModes"list of observed decay modes and branching ratios
    "DecayType"dominant decay type ("Strong", "Weak", ...)
    "FullDecayModes"list of all decay modes, including unobserved ones
    "UnobservedDecayModes"list of unobserved decay modes and upper bounds
  • Each decay mode is by default specified in the form {{f1,f2,f3},b} where the fi are decay products, and b is the branching ratio.
  • In "FullDecayModes", branching ratios of unobserved modes are given as 0. with a precision corresponding to the measured upper bound.
  • Namesrelated properties include:
  • "FullSymbol"standard particle symbol, including approximate mass
    "GenericFullSymbol"standard particle symbol, with mass but not charge state
    "GenericSymbol"standard particle symbol, excluding charge state
    "PDGNumber"PDG Monte Carlo particle number
    "StandardName"standard Wolfram Language name
    "Symbol"standard particle symbol
  • ParticleData["class"] gives a list of particles in the specified class. ParticleData[name,"class"] gives True or False depending on whether the particle corresponding to name is in the specified class.
  • ParticleData["Classes"] gives a list of names of classes.
  • Basic classes of particles include: "Lepton", "Hadron", "GaugeBoson", "Quark", "Meson", "Baryon", "Stable", "LongLived" (stable for seconds), "Fermion", "Boson".
  • Specific classes of particles include: "UnflavoredMeson", "UnflavoredBaryon", "StrangeMeson" (meson with nonzero strangeness but zero charm, etc.), "StrangeBaryon", "CharmedMeson", "CharmedBaryon", "CCBarMeson", "StrangeCharmedMeson", "StrangeCharmedBaryon", "BottomMeson", etc.
  • ParticleData[name,"property","ann"] gives various annotations associated with a property. Typical annotations include:
  • "Description"short textual description of the property
    "Interval"uncertainty range given by Interval[]
    "LongDescription"longer textual description of the property
    "Note"additional information about the property
    "Units"units in which the value is given
    "UnitsName"English name for the units used
    "UnitsNotation"notation for the units used
    "UnitsStandardName"Wolfram Language standard name for the units used
    "Value"property value (default if no annotation is specified)
    "ValueInterval"property value together with uncertainty range


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Basic Examples  (4)

Find the mass of the muon in MeV:

The lifetime of the muon in seconds:

Find the primary quark content of the proton:

A list of leptons:

A list of baryons:

Scope  (23)

Names and Classes  (14)

Obtain a list of all the elementary particles sorted by mass:

Use a string name to refer to long-lived and ground-state particles:

Find excited states of mesons and baryons:

Find charge multiplet members:

Get a list of properties for a charge multiplet:

Use a list to specify the charge state of excited-state mesons and baryons:

Use the list form as an alternate standard name for ground-state particles:

Find the antiparticle of a particle:

Use Bar to specify the antiparticle of a particle:

Find the PDG Monte Carlo number:

Use the PDG number as an alternate standard name:

Find the standard symbol for a particle:

Without the charge:

Include approximate mass and charge:

Include approximate mass but no charge:

Find the list of particle classes:

Find the list of long-lived particles:

Find masses of the quarks:

Properties and Annotations  (5)

Get a list of properties for a particular particle:

Get a list of property annotations:

Get a short textual description of a property:

Get a longer textual description:

Find the units in which a property value is given:

Get the units in proper textual form:

Get units as notation:

Uncertainty is represented using Interval:

Property Values  (4)

A property value can be any valid Wolfram Language expression:

Use Precision to find out the number of significant digits for a property:

A property that is not applicable to a particle has the value Missing["NotApplicable"]:

A property that is unknown for a particle has the value Missing["Unknown"]:

Generalizations & Extensions  (1)

Find the list of particle names matching a string expression:

Applications  (8)

Masses of known mesons:

Log plot of the estimated effective masses of quarks and antiquarks:

Plot mass against spin for all known unflavored mesons:

Rank plot of particle lifetimes, notably showing no evidence of time quantization:

A log-log rank plot, illustrating the difference between different forms of decay:

Approximate density of known particles as a function of mass:

Number of known particles with each successive spin:

Result for mesons:

Find all particles with lifetimes above seconds:

Plot the strangeness versus for scalar mesons with masses below 1 GeV:

Vector mesons:

Properties & Relations  (6)

Get values of multiple properties for a list of particles:

Display the data as a formatted table using Grid and Text:

Use DeleteCases to filter out non-missing data:

Alternatively use Cases with Except to filter out missing data:

Use ListPlot to plot a list of property values:

Missing data is automatically excluded in plotting functions:

Use ListLogPlot when the data spans many orders of magnitude:

Use IsotopeData to find information about the nuclear isotopes:

Use ElementData to find physical and chemical properties of an element:

Possible Issues  (2)

Using nonstandard particle and property names will not work:

Use string functions to find the standardized names:

Arithmetical operations cannot be carried out on Missing entries:

Remove the Missing entries before performing operations:

Wolfram Research (2007), ParticleData, Wolfram Language function, (updated 2014).


Wolfram Research (2007), ParticleData, Wolfram Language function, (updated 2014).


Wolfram Language. 2007. "ParticleData." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research. Last Modified 2014.


Wolfram Language. (2007). ParticleData. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from


@misc{reference.wolfram_2024_particledata, author="Wolfram Research", title="{ParticleData}", year="2014", howpublished="\url{}", note=[Accessed: 19-June-2024 ]}


@online{reference.wolfram_2024_particledata, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={ParticleData}, year={2014}, url={}, note=[Accessed: 19-June-2024 ]}