XHTML (.html, .htm, .xhtml, .xht, .xml)

Background & Context

    • Registered MIME type: application/xhtml+xml
    • XHTML markup language and file format.
    • XML-based reformulation of HTML.
    • XHTML is an acronym derived from Extensible Hypertext Markup Language.
    • Plain text XML format.
    • Describes the structure and aspects of the appearance of web pages.
    • Successor of HTML.
    • Published as a W3C recommendation in 2001.

Import & Export

  • Import["file.xhtml"] gives a plain text representation of an XHTML file.
  • Import["file.xhtml","Data"] extracts tabular data from XHTML.
  • Export["file.xhtml",expr] creates an XHTML version of expr.
  • Export["dir",expr] translates expr to XHTML, saving the output in the specified directory.
  • Import["file.xhtml"] returns a string, representing the textual content of the file as formatted plain text.
  • Export["file.xhtml",expr] exports a notebook, a cell, a list of cells, or other notebook elements to XHTML.
  • Export always creates a complete XHTML document, and not merely a fragment of XHTML.
  • The output consists of one or more XHTML files and two directories, HTMLFiles and HTMLLinks.
  • The Wolfram Language by default converts typeset expressions to GIF images when exporting to XHTML.
  • The Wolfram Language can export Tooltip and Hyperlink expressions, creating HTML image maps if necessary.
  • Import["file.xhtml",elem] imports the specified element from an XHTML file.
  • Import["file.xhtml",{elem,suba,subb,}] imports a subelement.
  • Import["file.xhtml",{{elem1,elem2,}}] imports multiple elements.
  • The import format can be specified with Import["file","XHTML"] or Import["file",{"XHTML",elem,}].
  • Export["file.xhtml",expr, elem] creates an XHTML file by treating expr as specifying element elem.
  • Export["file.xhtml",{expr1,expr2,},{{elem1,elem2,}}] treats each expri as specifying the corresponding elemi.
  • Export["file.xhtml",expr,opt1->val1,] exports expr with the specified option elements taken to have the specified values.
  • Export["file.xhtml",{elem1->expr1,elem2->expr2,},"Rules"] uses rules to specify the elements to be exported.
  • See the reference pages for full general information on Import and Export.
  • ImportString and ExportString support the XHTML format.

Notebook Interface

  • Save Selection As exports the selected part of a notebook as a web page.
  • Save As exports an entire notebook as a web page.

Import Elements

  • General Import elements:
  • "Elements"list of elements and options available in this file
    "Rules"full list of rules for each element and option
    "Options"list of rules for options, properties, and settings
  • Import elements:
  • "Data"textual and numerical content from HTML table and list elements
    "FullData"full tabular content, including empty HTML table and list elements
    "Hyperlinks"hyperlinks, given as a list of strings
    "Plaintext"XHTML document formatted as text
    "Images"images embedded in the XHTML document
    "Source"raw XHTML source as a single string
    "Title"HTML page title
    "ImageLinks"URLs of embedded images
    "XMLObject"symbolic XML representation of the entire document
  • Import by default uses the "Plaintext" element.
  • Export elements:
  • "Notebook"a Notebook expression
    "NotebookObject"a NotebookObject expression
    "Expression"an arbitrary Wolfram Language expression


  • Basic Export options:
  • "ConvertLinkedNotebooks"Falsewhether to convert linked notebooks to HTML
    "CSS"Automaticwhat CSS stylesheet to use or link to
    "MathOutput""GIF"how to represent typeset expressions
    "Content"Falsewhether to export MathML content elements
  • Possible settings for "CSS" are:
  • Automaticcreates a CSS stylesheet from the Wolfram System stylesheet
    Nonedoes not create a stylesheet file or inline CSS style
    "file.css"uses a stylesheet file
  • The following settings can be given for "MathOutput":
  • "GIF"converts all typeset expressions to GIF
    "MathML"converts all typeset expressions to MathML
    "DisplayForm"converts all typeset expressions to ASCII approximations of their appearance
    "InputForm"converts all typeset expressions to their InputForm
  • See the "HTML" format page for complete information about supported Import and Export options.


Basic Examples  (2)

Read an XHTML file as plain text:

Show the Import elements available in this file:

Import the tabular content from this file:

This exports a mathematical expression to HTML:

Show the names of the files saved into the HTMLFiles directory:

Import the rasterized typeset expression: