# And

e1&&e2&&

is the logical AND function. It evaluates its arguments in order, giving False immediately if any of them are False, and True if they are all True.

# Details

• And[e1,e2,] can be input in StandardForm and InputForm as e1e2. The character can be entered as &&, and, or \[And]. »
• And has attribute HoldAll and explicitly controls the evaluation of its arguments. In e1&&e2&&, the ei are evaluated in order, stopping if any of them are found to be False. »
• And gives symbolic results when necessary, removing initial arguments that are True. »

# Examples

open allclose all

## Basic Examples(4)

Combine assertions with &&:

A symbolic conjunction:

A system of equations:

Enter using and:

## Scope(5)

And works with any number of arguments:

And is associative:

And with explicit True or False arguments will simplify:

And evaluates its arguments in order, stopping when an argument evaluates to False:

The order of arguments may be important:

Symbolic transformations will not preserve argument ordering:

## Applications(6)

Combine conditions in Wolfram Language code:

If an argument of And evaluates to False, any subsequent arguments are not evaluated:

The argument order in And matters; if the last two arguments are reversed, I>0 is evaluated:

Combine assumptions:

Combine equations and inequalities; And is used both in the input and in the output:

Use And to combine conditions:

A cellular automaton based on And:

Find the area of the intersection of sets given by algebraic conditions:

This shows the set:

## Properties & Relations(8)

Truth table for binary And:

Ternary And:

Zero-argument And is True:

And with a single argument will return the evaluated argument regardless of value:

&& has higher precedence than ||:

Use BooleanConvert to expand And with respect to Or:

De Morgan's laws relate And, Or, and Not:

Conjunction of conditions corresponds to the product or Min of Boole functions:

Wolfram Research (1988), And, Wolfram Language function, https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/And.html (updated 1996).

#### Text

Wolfram Research (1988), And, Wolfram Language function, https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/And.html (updated 1996).

#### CMS

Wolfram Language. 1988. "And." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research. Last Modified 1996. https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/And.html.

#### APA

Wolfram Language. (1988). And. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/And.html

#### BibTeX

@misc{reference.wolfram_2022_and, author="Wolfram Research", title="{And}", year="1996", howpublished="\url{https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/And.html}", note=[Accessed: 28-March-2023 ]}

#### BibLaTeX

@online{reference.wolfram_2022_and, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={And}, year={1996}, url={https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/And.html}, note=[Accessed: 28-March-2023 ]}