The elements of the periodic table.

Entity["Element",name] or

represents an entity of type "Element".


gives the value of a specified property.


gives the value of a list of properties.


gives the value of a specified property modified by qualifier rules quali->vali.


represents a class of entities with values of propi defined by speci.

Sample Entities

Sample Entity Classes


  • AdiabaticIndexadiabatic index
    AllotropicMultiplicitiesallotropic multiplicities
    AlternateNamesalternate names
    AlternateStandardNamesalternate standard names
    AtomicMassatomic mass
    AtomicNumberatomic number
    AtomicRadiusatomic radius
    AtomicSymbolatomic symbol
    BoilingPointboiling point
    BrinellHardnessBrinell hardness
    BulkModulusbulk modulus
    CASNumberCAS number
    CommonCompoundscommon compound names
    CovalentRadiuscovalent radius
    CriticalPressurecritical pressure
    CriticalTemperaturecritical temperature
    CrustAbundancecrust abundance
    CrustMolarAbundancecrust molar abundance
    CrystalStructureBravais lattice
    CrystalStructureImagelattice schematic
    CuriePointCurie point
    DebyeCharacteristicTemperatureDebye characteristic temperature
    DecayModedecay mode
    DiscoveryCountriesdiscovery country
    DiscoveryYeardiscovery year
    ElectricalConductivityelectrical conductivity
    ElectricalTypeelectrical type
    ElectronAffinityelectron affinity
    ElectronCountnumber of electrons
    ElectronicConfigurationelectronic configuration
    ElectronShellConfigurationelectron shell configuration
    EntityClassesentity classes
    FullElectronConfigurationfull electron configuration
    FusionHeatmolar heat of fusion
    GasAtomicMultiplicitiesgas atomic multiplicities
    HumanAbundancehuman abundance
    HumanMolarAbundancehuman molar abundance
    IconColoricon color
    IonizationEnergiesionization energies
    IsotopeAbundancesisotope abundances
    IsotopeHalfLivesisotope half-lives
    IsotopeLifetimesisotope lifetimes
    KnownIsotopesknown isotopes
    KnownOxidationStatesknown oxidation states
    LatticeAngleslattice angles
    LatticeConstantslattice constants
    LewisDotStructureDiagramLewis structure
    LiquidDensityliquid density
    MagneticTypemagnetic type
    MassMagneticSusceptibilitymass magnetic susceptibility
    MeltingPointmelting point
    MeteoriteAbundancemeteorite abundance
    MeteoriteMolarAbundancemeteorite molar abundance
    MohsHardnessMohs hardness
    MolarHeatCapacitymolar heat capacity
    MolarMagneticSusceptibilitymolar magnetic susceptibility
    MolarMassmolar mass
    MolarRadioactivitymolar radioactivity
    MolarVolumemolar volume
    MostCommonOxidationStatesmost common oxidation states
    NeelPointNéel point
    NeutronCountnumber of neutrons per isotope
    NeutronCrossSectionneutron cross-section
    NeutronMassAbsorptionneutron mass absorption
    NuclearDiameternuclear diameter
    NuclearRadiusnuclear radius
    OceanAbundanceocean abundance
    OceanMolarAbundanceocean molar abundance
    OrbitalOccupationListorbital occupation list
    Phasephase at STP
    PoissonRatioPoisson ratio
    ProtonCountnumber of protons
    RefractiveIndexrefractive index
    ShearModulusshear modulus
    ShortElectronicConfigurationshort electronic configuration
    SolarAbundancesolar abundance
    SolarMolarAbundancesolar molar abundance
    SolidificationHeatmolar heat of solidification
    SoundSpeedsound speed
    SpaceGroupspace group
    SpaceGroupNumberIUCr space group number
    SpecificFusionHeatspecific heat of fusion
    SpecificHeatspecific heat at STP
    SpecificIonizationEnergiesspecific ionization energies
    SpecificRadioactivityspecific radioactivity
    SpecificSolidificationHeatspecific heat of solidification
    SpecificVaporizationHeatspecific heat of vaporization
    StableIsotopesstable isotopes
    SuperconductingPointsuperconducting point
    TensileYieldStrengthtensile yield strength
    TermSymbolterm symbol
    ThermalConductivitythermal conductivity
    ThermalExpansionthermal expansion
    UltimateTensileStrengthultimate tensile strength
    UniverseAbundanceuniverse abundance
    UniverseMolarAbundanceuniverse molar abundance
    UnstableIsotopesunstable isotopes
    ValenceElectronCountnumber of valence electrons
    VanDerWaalsRadiusvan der Waals radius
    VaporizationHeatmolar heat of vaporization
    VickersHardnessVickers hardness
    VolumeMagneticSusceptibilityvolume magnetic susceptibility
    WorkFunctionwork function
    YoungModulusYoung's modulus


  • "Element" entities are the smallest building blocks of matter and cannot be broken into constituent pieces by chemical means.
  • "Element" entity classes include the periods and groups of the periodic table.
  • Some properties are available for the "Element" entity type as a whole and can be given using the form EntityValue["Element",property]. Such properties include:
  • "Properties"the list of available properties
    "PropertyCanonicalNames"the standard names of available properties
    "SampleEntities"a sample list of available entities (typically of length 10)
    "SampleEntityClasses"a sample list of available entity classes (typically of length 10)
    "EntityCount"number of entities available
    "Entities"the list of available entities
    "EntityCanonicalNames"the standard names of available entities
    "EntityClasses"the list of available entity classes
    "EntityClassCanonicalNames"the standard names of available entity classes
    "PropertyClasses"the list of available property classes
    "PropertyClassCanonicalNames"the standard names of available property classes
    "PropertyCount"number of properties available
  • The following annotations can be used in the third argument of EntityValue["Element",property,annotation]:
  • "Source"source information for the property
    "Date"the date associated with the entity-property value (if any)
    "EntityAssociation"an association of entities and entity-property values
    "PropertyAssociation"an association of properties and entity-property values
    "EntityPropertyAssociation"an association in which the specified entities are keys, and values are a nested association of properties and entity-property values
    "PropertyEntityAssociation"an association in which the specified properties are keys, and values are a nested association of entities and entity-property values
    "Dataset"a dataset in which the specified entities are keys, and values are an association of property names and entity-property values
  • The following annotations can be used in the second argument of EntityValue[property,annotation]:
  • "Qualifiers"the list of possible qualifiers for the property
    "QualifierValues"the list of possible values that can be given to each qualifier
    "DefaultQualifierValues"the list of default values for the property's qualifiers
    "Description"a brief textual description of the property
    "Definition"a detailed textual definition of the property
    "PhysicalQuantity"the physical quantity associated with the entity-property value
    "Unit"the unit associated with the entity-property value
  • A qualifier value of Automatic indicates that an applicable format of values can be used; e.g. for the "Date" qualifier, this includes a proper date or date span.


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Basic Examples  (7)

Use for discovery:

Find the electron configuration for an element:

Find the thermal conductivity of tungsten (in SI units):

Get a list of available classes of elements:

Retrieve a dataset of all available properties for an entity:

Find the five most electronegative elements:

Find the English name of an element:

A list of alternate names can also be found:

Scope  (5)

Implicit Entity Classes  (2)

Find the most common elements in meteorites:

List all the elements discovered in the first half of the twentieth century:

Entity Instances  (1)

Find the price of gold in 2010:

Property Classes  (2)

Get a list of available element property classes:

Get a Dataset of all the material properties for an element:

Applications  (3)

Show the linear relationship between enthalpy of vaporization and boiling point:

Plot the atomic radii of the elements, showing the effects of the electron shell structure:

Plot the number of stable isotopes of each element:

Relations to Other Entity Types  (1)

Get a list of known isotopes for an element:

Neat Examples  (2)

Use TimelinePlot to visualize the discovery of the lanthanides:

Find how many elements were discovered in each country: