builds a URL with the specified path and query parameters and values parami and vali.


builds a URL from the path components pathi.


builds a URL from a specification of a path and query parameters.


builds a URL from an association of components.


builds a URL from an association of components, plus query parameters and values.

Details and Options

  • URLBuild[URL["path"],] and URLBuild[CloudObject["path"],] are also supported.
  • In a list of rules for queries, the vali can be strings or numbers, or the following special forms:
  • None,Null,Missing""
    {e1,e2,}e1, e2,
  • In URLBuild[assoc], the Association assoc can contain the following elements:
  • "Scheme"URL scheme
    "User"user information
    "Domain"domain name or host
    "Port"port number (as an integer)
    "Path"path list or string
    "Query"query string or list of parameter-value pairs
    "Fragment"fragment specification (given after #)
  • If queries are specified both in assoc and with a list of rules, the queries are concatenated.
  • Strings from assoc or from query parameters or values are percent-encoded.
  • URLBuild has the option CharacterEncoding, which specifies what type of character encoding to use for the output. The default is "UTF-8".


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Basic Examples  (3)

Build a URL:

Include a query:

Create a URL string from an association:

Scope  (6)

Create a URL from a path:

Include a query:

Nested lists in query parameters are flattened:

Existing query parameters are preserved:

Use a URL object for the base:

Use a CloudObject for the base:

Generalizations & Extensions  (1)

Create a generic URL:

Query can either be a string or a list of rules:

Path can be a list or a list of paths:

Options  (3)

CharacterEncoding  (1)

Percent encode with a specified encoding:

RemoveEmptyQueries  (1)

Remove empty parameters by using "RemoveEmptyQueries":

SortQueries  (1)

Sort query parameters by using "SortQueries":

Applications  (1)

Create a table of hyperlinks:

Properties & Relations  (1)

The parameter values are encoded using URLQueryEncode:

Possible Issues  (1)

Repeated keys are not supported by Association:

To specify multiple values, collect them in a list:

Alternatively, use a list of rules:

Wolfram Research (2014), URLBuild, Wolfram Language function, https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/URLBuild.html (updated 2016).


Wolfram Research (2014), URLBuild, Wolfram Language function, https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/URLBuild.html (updated 2016).


Wolfram Language. 2014. "URLBuild." Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Wolfram Research. Last Modified 2016. https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/URLBuild.html.


Wolfram Language. (2014). URLBuild. Wolfram Language & System Documentation Center. Retrieved from https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/URLBuild.html


@misc{reference.wolfram_2022_urlbuild, author="Wolfram Research", title="{URLBuild}", year="2016", howpublished="\url{https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/URLBuild.html}", note=[Accessed: 03-July-2022 ]}


@online{reference.wolfram_2022_urlbuild, organization={Wolfram Research}, title={URLBuild}, year={2016}, url={https://reference.wolfram.com/language/ref/URLBuild.html}, note=[Accessed: 03-July-2022 ]}