Normal

Normal[expr]

converts expr to a normal expression from a variety of special forms.

Normal[expr,h]

converts objects with head h in expr to normal expressions.

Normal[expr,{h1,h2,}]

converts objects with head hi to normal expressions.

Details

Examples

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Basic Examples  (3)

Create a normal dense list from a sparse array:

Create a normal expression from a series expansion:

Convert an association to a list of rules:

Normal acts on the first level only:

Scope  (4)

Convert RootSum objects to Root objects:

Typically the RootSum objects will give more accurate numerical values:

Convert from a GraphicsComplex object to graphics primitives:

Both forms produce the same image:

Normal will affect expressions nested inside other expressions:

Normal converts different types of expressions by default:

Convert only the sparse array:

Normalize the series and the association but not the sparse array:

Applications  (1)

Compare the actual error to the theoretical asymptotic error for a difference quotient:

Power series about :

Asymptotic truncation error for small :

Compare actual and asymptotic errors as a function of for at :

With higher precision, the asymptotic error holds for smaller :

Properties & Relations  (1)

For f that work with SparseArray objects s, often Normal[f[s]]===f[Normal[s]]:

Introduced in 1988
 (1.0)
 |
Updated in 1991
 (2.0)
1996
 (3.0)
2003
 (5.0)
2007
 (6.0)
2008
 (7.0)
2010
 (8.0)
2012
 (9.0)
2014
 (10.0)
2015
 (10.3)