# Zeta

Zeta[s]

gives the Riemann zeta function .

Zeta[s,a]

gives the generalized Riemann zeta function .

# Details and Options • Mathematical function, suitable for both symbolic and numerical manipulation.
• For , .
• , where any term with is excluded.
• For , the definition used is .
• Zeta[s] has no branch cut discontinuities.
• For certain special arguments, Zeta automatically evaluates to exact values.
• Zeta can be evaluated to arbitrary numerical precision.
• Zeta automatically threads over lists.

# Examples

open allclose all

## Basic Examples(6)

Evaluate numerically:

Generalized (Hurwitz) zeta function:

Plot over a subset of the reals:

Plot over a subset of the complexes:

Series expansion at the origin:

Series expansion at Infinity:

Series expansion at a singular point:

## Scope(28)

### Numerical Evaluation(5)

Evaluate numerically:

Evaluate to high precision:

The precision of the output tracks the precision of the input:

Complex number inputs:

Evaluate efficiently at high precision:

### Specific Values(6)

Simple exact values are generated automatically:

Zeta[s,a] for symbolic :

Zeta[s,a] for symbolic :

Value at zero:

Limiting value at infinity:

Find a value of for which Zeta[s]=1.05:

### Visualization(3)

Plot the Zeta function:

Plot the generalized Zeta function for various orders:

Plot the real part of the Zeta function:

Plot the imaginary part of the Zeta function:

### Function Properties(6)

Real domain of Zeta:

Complex domain:

Approximate function range of Zeta:

Zeta has the mirror property :

Zeta threads elementwise over lists and matrices:

### Differentiation(3)

First derivative with respect to :

Evaluate derivatives exactly for the Riemann zeta function:

Higher derivatives with respect to :

Plot the higher derivatives with respect to when :

### Series Expansions(2)

Find the Taylor expansion using Series:

Plots of the first three approximations around :

General term in the series expansion using SeriesCoefficient:

### Function Identities and Simplifications(3)

Zeta is defined through the identity:

Sum involving the Zeta function:

Connection with the MoebiusMu function:

## Applications(7)

Plot the real part of the zeta function on the critical line:

Plot the real part across the critical strip:

Find a zero of the zeta function:

Find several zeros:

Use ZetaZero:

Find what fraction of pairs of the first 100 integers are relatively prime:

Compare with a zeta function formula:

Define the xi function:

Test the Pustylnikov form of the Riemann hypothesis:

Plot real and imaginary parts in the vicinity of two very nearby zeros:

Plot the generalized zeta function:

## Properties & Relations(8)

### Riemann Zeta Function(5)

Sum involving a zeta function:

Use FullSimplify to prove the functional equation:

Zeta can be represented as a DifferenceRoot:

### Generalized Zeta Function(3)

The ordinary zeta function is a special case:

In certain cases, FunctionExpand gives formulas in terms of other functions:

## Possible Issues(4)

Real and imaginary parts can have very different scales:

Evaluating the imaginary part accurately requires higher internal precision: Machine-number inputs can give highprecision results:

Giving 0 as an argument does not define the precision required:

Including an accuracy specification gives enough information:

In TraditionalForm, ζ is not automatically interpreted as the zeta function:

## Neat Examples(2)

Play the real part of the zeta function on the critical line as a sound:

Animate the zeta function on the critical line:

Introduced in 1988
(1.0)
|
Updated in 1999
(4.0)
2000
(4.1)
2002
(4.2)