# Combinatorial Functions

n! | factorial |

n!! | double factorial |

Binomial[n,m] | binomial coefficient |

Multinomial[n_{1},n_{2},…] | multinomial coefficient |

CatalanNumber[n] | Catalan number |

Hyperfactorial[n] | hyperfactorial |

BarnesG[n] | Barnes G-function |

Subfactorial[n] | number of derangements of objects |

Fibonacci[n] | Fibonacci number |

Fibonacci[n,x] | Fibonacci polynomial |

LucasL[n] | Lucas number |

LucasL[n,x] | Lucas polynomial |

HarmonicNumber[n] | harmonic number |

HarmonicNumber[n,r] | harmonic number of order |

BernoulliB[n] | Bernoulli number |

BernoulliB[n,x] | Bernoulli polynomial |

NorlundB[n,a] | Nörlund polynomial |

NorlundB[n,a,x] | generalized Bernoulli polynomial |

EulerE[n] | Euler number |

EulerE[n,x] | Euler polynomial |

StirlingS1[n,m] | Stirling number of the first kind |

StirlingS2[n,m] | Stirling number of the second kind |

BellB[n] | Bell number |

BellB[n,x] | Bell polynomial |

PartitionsP[n] | the number of unrestricted partitions of the integer |

IntegerPartitions[n] | partitions of an integer |

PartitionsQ[n] | the number of partitions of into distinct parts |

Signature[{i_{1},i_{2},…}] | the signature of a permutation |

The *factorial function* gives the number of ways of ordering objects. For non‐integer , the numerical value of is obtained from the gamma function, discussed in "Special Functions".

The *binomial coefficient* Binomial[n,m] can be written as . It gives the number of ways of choosing objects from a collection of objects, without regard to order. The *Catalan numbers*, which appear in various tree enumeration problems, are given in terms of binomial coefficients as .

The *subfactorial* Subfactorial[n] gives the number of permutations of objects that leave no object fixed. Such a permutation is called a derangement. The subfactorial is given by .

The *multinomial coefficient* Multinomial[n_{1},n_{2},…], denoted , gives the number of ways of partitioning distinct objects into sets of sizes (with ).

The *Fibonacci numbers* Fibonacci[n] satisfy the recurrence relation with . They appear in a wide range of discrete mathematical problems. For large , approaches the golden ratio. The *Lucas numbers* LucasL[n] satisfy the same recurrence relation as the Fibonacci numbers do, but with initial conditions and .

The *Fibonacci polynomials* Fibonacci[n,x] appear as the coefficients of in the expansion of .

The *harmonic numbers* HarmonicNumber[n] are given by ; the harmonic numbers of order HarmonicNumber[n,r] are given by . Harmonic numbers appear in many combinatorial estimation problems, often playing the role of discrete analogs of logarithms.

The *Bernoulli polynomials* BernoulliB[n,x] satisfy the generating function relation . The *Bernoulli numbers* BernoulliB[n] are given by . The appear as the coefficients of the terms in the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula for approximating integrals. The Bernoulli numbers are related to the *Genocchi numbers* by .

Numerical values for Bernoulli numbers are needed in many numerical algorithms. You can always get these numerical values by first finding exact rational results using BernoulliB[n], and then applying N.

The *Euler polynomials* EulerE[n,x] have generating function , and the *Euler numbers* EulerE[n] are given by .

The *Nörlund polynomials* NorlundB[n,a] satisfy the generating function relation . The Nörlund polynomials give the Bernoulli numbers when . For other positive integer values of , the Nörlund polynomials give higher-order Bernoulli numbers. The *generalized Bernoulli polynomials* NorlundB[n,a,x] satisfy the generating function relation .

Stirling numbers show up in many combinatorial enumeration problems. For *Stirling numbers of the first kind* StirlingS1[n,m], gives the number of permutations of elements which contain exactly cycles. These Stirling numbers satisfy the generating function relation . Note that some definitions of the differ by a factor from what is used in the Wolfram Language.

*Stirling numbers of the second kind* StirlingS2[n,m], sometimes denoted , give the number of ways of partitioning a set of elements into non‐empty subsets. They satisfy the relation .

The *Bell numbers* BellB[n] give the total number of ways that a set of elements can be partitioned into non‐empty subsets. The *Bell polynomials* BellB[n,x] satisfy the generating function relation .

The *partition function* PartitionsP[n] gives the number of ways of writing the integer as a sum of positive integers, without regard to order. PartitionsQ[n] gives the number of ways of writing as a sum of positive integers, with the constraint that all the integers in each sum are distinct.

IntegerPartitions[n] gives a list of the partitions of , with length .

Most of the functions here allow you to *count* various kinds of combinatorial objects. Functions like IntegerPartitions and Permutations allow you instead to *generate* lists of various combinations of elements.

The *signature function* Signature[{i_{1},i_{2},…}] gives the signature of a permutation. It is equal to for even permutations (composed of an even number of transpositions), and to for odd permutations. The signature function can be thought of as a totally antisymmetric tensor, *Levi‐Civita symbol* or *epsilon symbol*.

ClebschGordan[{j_{1},m_{1}},{j_{2},m_{2}},{j,m}] | Clebsch–Gordan coefficient |

ThreeJSymbol[{j_{1},m_{1}},{j_{2},m_{2}},{j_{3},m_{3}}] | Wigner 3‐j symbol |

SixJSymbol[{j_{1},j_{2},j_{3}},{j_{4},j_{5},j_{6}}] | Racah 6‐j symbol |

Rotational coupling coefficients.

Clebsch–Gordan coefficients and ‐j symbols arise in the study of angular momenta in quantum mechanics, and in other applications of the rotation group. The *Clebsch–Gordan coefficients* ClebschGordan[{j_{1},m_{1}},{j_{2},m_{2}},{j,m}] give the coefficients in the expansion of the quantum mechanical angular momentum state in terms of products of states .

The *3‐j symbols* or *Wigner coefficients* ThreeJSymbol[{j_{1},m_{1}},{j_{2},m_{2}},{j_{3},m_{3}}] are a more symmetrical form of Clebsch–Gordan coefficients. In the Wolfram Language, the Clebsch–Gordan coefficients are given in terms of 3‐j symbols by .

The *6‐j symbols* SixJSymbol[{j_{1},j_{2},j_{3}},{j_{4},j_{5},j_{6}}] give the couplings of three quantum mechanical angular momentum states. The *Racah coefficients* are related by a phase to the 6‐j symbols.